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It was the best of times, it was the worst of times,
it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness,
it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity,
it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness,
it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair,
we had everything before us, we had nothing before us…

---- Charles Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities. 1859.
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Given the fact that the institutionalization of private time is a fairly modern phenomenon, it is not surprising that, in professions which adhere to the traditional definition of the relations between person and occupational role, private time is essentially defined as a residual category. In other words, from a logical standpoint, pri­ vate time is traditionally defined in a negative fashion, that is, as time during which one is inaccessible, not involved or committed.

...it is particularly in careers such as medicine or the military that one's time with one's family, for example, is defined in a residual manner.

--- Evitar Zerubavel. Hidden Rhythms, 1985.

It's interesting to see ( in the context of the institutionalization of privacy) how the Fourth Amendment ( the prohibition of unreasonable searches and seizures) evolved into the modern right to privacy.
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as cultural beings, we have cultivated a special cog­nitive ability to carve out of the continuum of time segments that are handled discretely, as if they were quantum units.

Basically, whereas profane time is historical and is best represented in a linear fashion, sacred time is essentially ahis­torical and is best represented in a cyclical manner.


This quantitative approach toward the weekdays stands in marked contrast to the qualitative approach toward the Sabbath itself, whose name is associated not only with the number seven , but also with the purely qualitative concept of rest. The Hebrew nomenclature of the days of the week thus also reflects the fact that, while the weekdays may be interchangeable with one another, as a group they are clearly perceived as absolutely distinct from the Sabbath .



In the context of time, the number 7 (week) is quite remarkable because, excluding the Sabbath, it leaves 6 workdays, which makes the whole work-week system highly flexible; that is, it becomes divisible into neat day slots: 1, 2, 3.

I feel like the Sabbath plays the same role in the calendar as the space between words in a written text.
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...time seems to constitute one of the major parameters of the context on which the meaning of social acts and situ­ations depends.

Ac­cording to Durkheim, the real characteristic of religious phenomena is that they always suppose a bipartite division of the whole universe, known and knowable, into two classes which embrace all that exists, but which radically exclude each other. For Durkheim, no way of classifying the universe is more funda­mental to human cognition than the one between these two cate­gories - the sacred and the profane: In all the history of human thought there exists no other example of two categories of things so profoundly differentiated or so radically opposed to one another.
To achieve such an absolute distinction in the human mind, a total separation of these two domains in actuality is essential.

--- Evitar Zerubavel. Hidden Rhythms, 1985.

What would be long-term advantages of such separation? Is this the fundamental feature of our civilization that allows for rule making and rule following?
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One of the most significant consequences of the introduction of the clock-and, with it, the quantitative view of duration-to the West has been the evolution of an abstract conception of time there.
The abstract conception of time is at the basis of the modern notion of duration, which is essentially what we measure when we use the stopwatch, the parking meter, or the egg timer.

--- Evitar Zerubavel. Hidden Rhythms, 1985.

The invention of the mechanical clock made the duration aspect of time monoidable. As a result we can map it to any other measurable entity, e.g. money, effort, skill, etc.
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A most useful way of demonstrating the existence of a certain phenomenon is to examine the implications and consequences of its absence. As Benjamin Lee Whorf suggested, if a rule has absolutely no exceptions, it is not recognized as a rule or as anything else; it is then part of the background of experience of which we tend to remain unconscious.

The obvious methodological implication of this is that investigating the "pathological" might help us to discover, unveil, or simply bring into focus the "normal," which we usually take for granted and­ therefore tend to ignore.

--- Evitar Zerubavel. Hidden Rhythms, 1985.
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Here's the four types of time I know:
a) cyclical - the traditional view generally derived from natural cycles;
b) linear - modern Newtonian;
c) non–linear - contemporary Einsteinian;
d) no time at all - (black holes, big bang, Genesis 1:1, etc.)

Anything I missed?
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I searched google scholar for articles on post-election trends, to figure out whether Trump was going to have a "honeymoon" period during the first 100 days of his administration. The answer appears to be "no" (duh).

In the process, I've found some interesting articles on major issues that new couples experience during the first 5 years of marriage. It turns out that resource constraints dominate early family life. First, there's not enough time for each other (given work and social obligations). Second, there's not enough sex (mostly, from the husband's perspective). Third, money is short because of debt and increased family-related consumption.

I wonder whether immigrant Indian families are successful in the US because they are debt-free and have extended family support when they move into the country.

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Очень трудно убедить людей в том, что они неправы, после того, как они выиграли. Например, после успешного захвата Крыма было невозможно объяснить гражданину России, что это стратегическая ошибка, которая обернется долгосрочными проблемами для страны.
Точно так же сейчас бесполезно пытаться убедить сторонников Трампа в том, что они неправы после того, как Трамп выиграл президентские выборы.

Анализ Эклезиаста начинается с 13:18

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When time is perceived as open-ended, goals that become most highly prioritized are most likely to be those that are preparatory, focused on gathering information, on experiencing novelty, and on expanding breadth of knowledge. When time is perceived as constrained, the most salient goals will be those that can be realized in the short-term, sometimes in their very pursuit. Under such conditions, goals tend to emphasize feeling states, particularly regulating emotional states to optimize psychological well-being.

SST predicts that people of different ages prioritize different types of goals. As people age and increasingly perceive time as finite, they attach less importance to goals that expand their horizons and greater importance to goals from which they derive emotional meaning.
Of course, a focus on emotionally satisfying stimuli may be a double-edged sword. Preferential attention to positive information, for example, may contribute to susceptibility to scams or other unscrupulous efforts to take advantage of older people.

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For the vast majority of human history, Newtonian time—the unitary, linear continuum assigning each event a unique location—was quite alien. Instead, human activity was closely tied to recurrent patterns, from the parts of the day, the lunar cycle, or the year to the parts of a lifetime. In traditional societies, past events are remembered by their coincidence with locations in these patterns, not as positions in a linear continuum.

The sense of an absolute chronology in our lives is an illusion, a thin veneer on the more basic substance of coincidence, locations in recurrent patterns, and independent sequences of meaningfully related events.

William J. Friedman. Memory for the Time of Past Events. Psychological Bulletin. 1993, Vol.113, No. 1,44-66.
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I think we are often confusing physical time and social time. Physical time is ontologically and epistemologically objective, while social time is ontologically subjective and epistemologically objective. The social time takes humans as a given. It defines an ordered set of slots where coordinated activities, e.g. living, computing, manufacturing, conveying, can take place. Humans bridge physical and social time, by using the former as a dynamic background for the latter.
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It just shows how difficult it is to find fine-grained regularity in nature.

Other parts: https://youtu.be/GqTB7mLpiQY
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Apocalyptic Argument and the Anticipation of Catastrophe: The Prediction of Risk and the Risks of Prediction. STEPHEN D. O’LEARY. Argumentation 11: 293–313, 1997.

If an arguer crosses the line by offering a specific prediction or time boundary that falls within the life span of the audience, he or she is no longer speaking sub specie aeternitatis; the subject or stasis of the argument moves out of the realm of abstract hypotheticals, and begins to directly address the concerns of the living. At this point, the audience’s role expands beyond a judicial one, which involves weighing the claims of apocalyptic argument, to include a spectatorial one, governed by the logic of drama as laid out by Aristotle in the Poetics.

Those members of the audience who entertain the apocalyptic claim or grant it a higher probability status may therefore be propelled into making a decision by the fear of losing their chance for preparation and salvation, while those who have already accepted the apocalyptic message are likely to increase their level of commitment.

... setting of specific dates for the end of the world is more than a sensational tactic to gain the attentions of the audience; from Burke’s dramatistic perspective, date specificity represents the natural culmination or formal completion of apocalyptic argument with respect to the topos of time. If the claim of impending global catastrophe and redemption is accepted, whether uncritically or provisionally, the audience’s natural curiosity will cause it to expect a prediction with a high degree of specificity and saliency.

I propose that arguments that predict catastrophe, and the responses to such arguments, are shaped by permutations of the following significant factors and variables: 1) the sources of the arguer’s authority, whether rational, traditional, or charismatic in the Weberian sense; 2) the degree to which audiences are prone to shift between modes of legitimation by ascribing prophetic authority based on personal character or expertise in technical fields unrelated to the prediction; 3) the saliency of the predictions for a specific audience, considered as a function of the timespan of the predicted course of events in relation to the lifespan, attentions, and preoccupations of a given group; 4) the degree of anomic risk assumed by both arguers and audiences, considered in terms of both the magnitude of predicted consequences, and of willingness to admit errors in prediction or to accept the consequences of errors in judging the truth or falsehood of prediction; 5) the degrees of modality or conditionality admitted or attended to by the predictor and the audience.
By solving a detection problem, the prophet enables his audience to engage in solving a control problem, e.g. develop and implement a course of actions that might address the problem. Then, an ideal prophecy ( for the prophet) would be to forecast an event that the audience is capable of affecting ( prevent, mitigate, avoid altogether). Moreover, the prophecy should be conditional on the audience.
A bad prophecy would be to forecast a specific event that is outside of the audience's control, such as earthquake, rain, etc.

How would human immortality affect this thesis? First, we should probably assume that immortality means more than a simple absence of death. Rather, we should think that immortality is an infinite period of stability in one's physical health. Second, we should try to understand better what event would be considered a catastrophe by healthy person. Third, we should establish sources of authority in a society of immortals. Fourth, we should consider the strength of connections over time within such a society. Fifth, we need to think on the number of immortal societies as well as mobility characteristics for individuals ( related to 4).

Therefore, I hypothesize that with an increase in human lifespan prophecies related to potential damage to social fabric should increase, accompanied by decrease in prophecies concerning personal survival and health.


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