timelets: (Default)
There seems to be a direct connection between Born's argument and CT.
This root of the matter is a very simple logical distinction which seems to be
obvious to anybody not biased by a solipsistic metaphysics; namely this : that often a measurable quantity is not a property of a thing, but a property of its relation to other things.

In every physical theory there is a rule which connects the projections of the same object
on different systems of reference, called a law of transformation, and all these transformations have the property of forming a group, i.e. the sequence of two consecutive transformations is a transformation of the same kind.

DOI 10.2307/2216882

Developing a new paradigm necessarily involves construction of a new frame of reference. For example, Newton was highly successful at creating new frames of reference for time and space. Born notes it in his Nobel speech.

Newtonian mechanics is deterministic in the following sense: If the initial state (positions and velocities of all particles) of a system is accurately given, then the state at any other time (earlier or later) can be calculated from the laws of mechanics. All the other branches of classical physics have been built up according to this model. Mechanical determinism gradually became a kind of article of faith: the world as a machine, an automaton. As far as I can see, this idea has no forerunners in ancient and medieval philosophy.* The idea is a product of the immense success of Newtonian mechanics, particularly in astronomy. In the 19th century it became a basic philosophical principle for the whole of exact science. I asked myself whether this was really justified. Can absolute predictions really be made for all time on the basis of the classical equations of motion?

* A new default worldview.
timelets: (Default)
To be sure, this word information in communication theory relates not so much to what you do say, as to what you could say.

That is, information is a measure of one's freedom of choice when one selects a message. If one is confronted with a very elementary situation where he has to choose one of two alternatIve messages, then it is arbitrarily said that the information, associated with this situation, is unity.

The concept of information applies not to the indi- vidual messages (as the concept of meaning would), but rather to the situation as a whole, the unit information indicating that in this situation one has an amount of freedom of choice, in selecting a message, which it is convenient-to regard as a standard or unit amount.

To be somewhat more definite, the amount of information is defined, in the simplest cases, to be measured by the logarithm of the number of available choices.

-- Claude E. Shannon and Warren Weaver (1949).


need to think about it in the context of learning by doing.
timelets: (Default)
A possible reason why CT works for developing new ideas:
“the words or the language, as they are written or spoken, do not seem to play any role in my mechanism of thought. The psychical entities which seem to serve as elements in thought are certain signs and more or less clear images which can be 'voluntarily' reproduced and combined.”

- Albert Einstein, quoted from Herbert A. Simon. Models of my life. p 375.


upd. Another possible related concept is "problem isomorphs."

Simon defined problem isomorphs as problems whose solutions and moves can be placed in one-to-one relation with the solutions and moves of the given problem [17]. The key to isomorphism is that even when two representations contain the same information, they can still provide very different sets of operations for accessing and inferring about that information, which can make a given problem easier or harder to solve [13]

Dou, Wenwen, et al. "Comparing different levels of interaction constraints for deriving visual problem isomorphs." Visual Analytics Science and Technology (VAST), 2010 IEEE Symposium on. IEEE, 2010.
timelets: (Default)












Наверное, объяснять это лучше будет на ологах.
timelets: (Default)
Влад ([livejournal.com profile] juan_gandhi) дал ссылку на интервью с [сумасшедшим] профессором из UC Irvine. Вот этa идея мне показалась ценной:
Hoffman: Suppose in reality there’s a resource, like water, and you can quantify how much of it there is in an objective order—very little water, medium amount of water, a lot of water. Now suppose your fitness function is linear, so a little water gives you a little fitness, medium water gives you medium fitness, and lots of water gives you lots of fitness—in that case, the organism that sees the truth about the water in the world can win, but only because the fitness function happens to align with the true structure in reality. Generically, in the real world, that will never be the case. Something much more natural is a bell curve—say, too little water you die of thirst, but too much water you drown, and only somewhere in between is good for survival. Now the fitness function doesn’t match the structure in the real world. And that’s enough to send truth to extinction. For example, an organism tuned to fitness might see small and large quantities of some resource as, say, red, to indicate low fitness, whereas they might see intermediate.


Получается, что у нас есть "незаметная глазу" огромная дыра, заполненная водой. По какой-то причине мы не умеем использовать этот ресурс, но если вдруг..., то дыра становится полезной нишей бесконечных размеров.

В теории Любарского есть идея пустоты, где мало ресурсов, поэтому в них на грани выживания пасутся маргиналы (левая сторона положительной линейной зависимости). А в модели Хоффмана, есть еще и маргиналы, которые пасутся на грани пустоты с огромными ресурсами (правая сторона зависимости).

Eureka!

Nov. 11th, 2016 01:26 pm
timelets: (Default)
TIL that the human capital theory of labor is no longer applicable. Instead, we should use the Thurow's model of the job market. I think the model would provide a plausible explanation for the 2016 election results:
...the level of job in the job queue that is available to an individual will depend not simply on how much education – or thus human capital – he or she has acquired but on how much relative to others in the labour queue or, in other words, on his or her position in this queue (Thurow, 1983: 95-7).

When jobs are scarce competition among workers intensifies. The perception is that if you are a straight white man you are the last one in the queue.

This idea should be fairly easy to test in the field.

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