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Control was not easy - this gives an extra spin to Frontinus' idea of mathematization as imposing order on a territory. The imposition of order is a dialectic, dynamic process through which a model of administrative control is applied to the specific nature of a place. This dynamic implies a negotiation of various factors, and I think that the role played by mathematics and by mathematical imagery in this negotiation is fundamental.

...mathematics guaranteed the possibility and reliability of calculations, and made cataloguing and recording easier, so it was ‘directly’ useful.


Finally, Frontinus chose one particular type of pipe, the quinaria, as the standard type and ruled that authorized standard pipes and nozzles had to be stamped with an official mark, and no unstamped pipes or nozzles could be used.

Imposing a standard is clearly at the same time a pragmatic administrative choice - uniformity facilitates repairs and control of misappropriations - and a political one - the fact itself that someone has the authority to set a standard unequivocally signals where the power lies.

-- Cuomo, Serafina (2000). Divide and rule: Frontinus and Roman land-surveying. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 31 (2)189-202.

Using "free-monoidable" structures enables a radical simplification of control procedures ("arrows"). The first example has to do with making land "monoidable" through mathematized surveying. The second example shows how standardization of elements enables administration of infrastructure and distribution of resources.
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Apocalyptic Argument and the Anticipation of Catastrophe: The Prediction of Risk and the Risks of Prediction. STEPHEN D. O’LEARY. Argumentation 11: 293–313, 1997.

If an arguer crosses the line by offering a specific prediction or time boundary that falls within the life span of the audience, he or she is no longer speaking sub specie aeternitatis; the subject or stasis of the argument moves out of the realm of abstract hypotheticals, and begins to directly address the concerns of the living. At this point, the audience’s role expands beyond a judicial one, which involves weighing the claims of apocalyptic argument, to include a spectatorial one, governed by the logic of drama as laid out by Aristotle in the Poetics.

Those members of the audience who entertain the apocalyptic claim or grant it a higher probability status may therefore be propelled into making a decision by the fear of losing their chance for preparation and salvation, while those who have already accepted the apocalyptic message are likely to increase their level of commitment.

... setting of specific dates for the end of the world is more than a sensational tactic to gain the attentions of the audience; from Burke’s dramatistic perspective, date specificity represents the natural culmination or formal completion of apocalyptic argument with respect to the topos of time. If the claim of impending global catastrophe and redemption is accepted, whether uncritically or provisionally, the audience’s natural curiosity will cause it to expect a prediction with a high degree of specificity and saliency.

I propose that arguments that predict catastrophe, and the responses to such arguments, are shaped by permutations of the following significant factors and variables: 1) the sources of the arguer’s authority, whether rational, traditional, or charismatic in the Weberian sense; 2) the degree to which audiences are prone to shift between modes of legitimation by ascribing prophetic authority based on personal character or expertise in technical fields unrelated to the prediction; 3) the saliency of the predictions for a specific audience, considered as a function of the timespan of the predicted course of events in relation to the lifespan, attentions, and preoccupations of a given group; 4) the degree of anomic risk assumed by both arguers and audiences, considered in terms of both the magnitude of predicted consequences, and of willingness to admit errors in prediction or to accept the consequences of errors in judging the truth or falsehood of prediction; 5) the degrees of modality or conditionality admitted or attended to by the predictor and the audience.
By solving a detection problem, the prophet enables his audience to engage in solving a control problem, e.g. develop and implement a course of actions that might address the problem. Then, an ideal prophecy ( for the prophet) would be to forecast an event that the audience is capable of affecting ( prevent, mitigate, avoid altogether). Moreover, the prophecy should be conditional on the audience.
A bad prophecy would be to forecast a specific event that is outside of the audience's control, such as earthquake, rain, etc.

How would human immortality affect this thesis? First, we should probably assume that immortality means more than a simple absence of death. Rather, we should think that immortality is an infinite period of stability in one's physical health. Second, we should try to understand better what event would be considered a catastrophe by healthy person. Third, we should establish sources of authority in a society of immortals. Fourth, we should consider the strength of connections over time within such a society. Fifth, we need to think on the number of immortal societies as well as mobility characteristics for individuals ( related to 4).

Therefore, I hypothesize that with an increase in human lifespan prophecies related to potential damage to social fabric should increase, accompanied by decrease in prophecies concerning personal survival and health.

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'though I felt that I had found rt answer to an important problem, I could not explain precisely what the problem was' (Hayek 1952b: v). it was nor until 1948 {and (or the ensuing ree years) that Hayek returned to issues raised by that early experience. In :jcccing the orthodox notion that sensory fibres cransmit meneal phenomena o be stOred in nerve cells, The Semory Order (1 952a) is an early statemenc of Ie 'connectionism' paradigm, according co which memory and thought Igage (potencially) the whole brain, by the variable strength of incerneural Impulses. ( Keynes and Hayek. G.R. Steele. p.43

A good illustration how discovering a problem is more difficult than finding a solution to it.
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well-defined problems vs ill-defined problems

judgement under uncertainty, when any one of those elements is not defined.

- given 
- goal
- algorithm
- obstacle
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With the rise of these banks the profits from sweating, adulterating and otherwise diminshing the coinage fell. And, equally or more important, with the rise of national states coins became fewer and better minted.
The problems assiciated with money ceased to be those of coinage; the became, instead, those of banks and exchequers, not excluding those of the institutions that had been established to safeguard the coinage.
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The merchants of Amsterdam at the end of the ixteenth century-a hundred years after the great flow f silver had started-were the recipients of a notably diverse collection of coins, extensively debased as to gold or silver content in various innovative ways. A manual for money changers issued by the Dutch parliatnent in 1606 listed 341 silver and 505 gold coinS.
Within the Dutch Republic no fewer than fourteen rUnts were then busy turning out money;

For each merchant to weigh the coin.. he received was a bother; the scales were also deeply and justifiably suspect.dam Smith told. 170 years later. of the solution: "In order to remedy [the aforemenhoned] inconveniences, a bank was established in 1609 l1I1~er_ the guarantee of the City. This bank received oth foreign coin, and the light worn [and other de>ased] coin of the country at its real intrinsic value in the good standard money of the country, deducting lly so much as was necessary for defraying the eJl!" lease of coinage, and the other necessary expense 01 lanagement. For the value which remained, after thi! imall deduction was made, it gave a credit on its books."12 Thus appeared, to regulate and limit abuse of he currency, the first notable public bank.
p. 19-20
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Human nature lay be an infinitely variant thing. But it has constants. )ne is that, given a choice, people keep what is the ,est for themselves, i.e., for those whom they love be most.

With numerous coins in circulation variously aduIera ted, clipped, filed, sweated, trimmed, and with he worst being offered first, coins became a probm. The path was now open for the next great rcorm, which was to go back to weighing. This decilve step was taken by the City of Amsterdam in 1609 -a step that joins the history of money to the history if banking. It was a step especially occasioned by the arge trade of Amsterdam. That, in turn, was assoated with one of the most pervasively influential :vents in the history of money-the voyages of Columbus and the effect on Europe of the ensuing conluest and development of Spanish America.

Discovery and conquest set in motion a vast low of preciou~ metal from America to Europe, and the re~ult was a huge rise in prices-an inflation occasioned by an increase in the supply of the hardest of hard money.
p. 13
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Metal was an inconvenient thing to accept, weigh, divide, assess as to quality in powder or chunks, although more convenient in this regard than cattle. Accordingly, from the earliest known times and more likely somewhat before, metal was made into coins of predetermined weight. This innovation is attributed by Herodotus to the kings of Lydia, presumably in the latter part of the eighth century BC.

Coinage after the Lydians developed greatly in the Greek cities and in their colonies in Sicily and Italy to become a major art form. p. 10.

Coinage was a notable convenience. It was also an invitation to major public and minor private fraud. For profligate or hard-pressed rulers, and these, over time, have been n clear majority of their class, it regularly appeared as a flash of revelation that they could reduce the amount of metal in their coins or run ill some cheaper brass and hope, in effect, that no one would notice, at least soon. . Thus a smaller lmount of silver or gold would buy as much as before, or the same pure weight that much more. p.11


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