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And the reason for Purdue [offering a masters program on semiconductors in 1960] is most people don’t know that the transistor effect was found at Crane Naval Air Development Center three weeks after Shockley. And it’s the tragedy of being second.

https://silicongenesis.stanford.edu/transcripts/kvamme.htm
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AR: Well, Fairchild Camera and Instrument was a company that was located in Syosset, New York. It's in Long Island. And it had, other than, when Sherman died the attitude changed a bit. They had a very, what I call an Eastern mentality in that they didn't want anybody to have any options in stock and the eight entrepreneurs who started Fairchild Semiconductor decided individually and together that they would gradually peel off and, and form their own enterprises because they couldn't get any more equity in, and a lot of the people there felt that they should be giving equity to some of the people who had, hadn't helped start the company but were instrumental in its, in its success. And Fairchild Camera and Instrument were, was unwilling to do that. So gradually they peeled off and finally by 1968 there were only Noyce and Moore left.

https://silicongenesis.stanford.edu/transcripts/rock.htm
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Most people who succeed are not very objective or realistic about why. They think it's all their personal brilliance. And in significant part it is, but they forget the luck factor and the contribution of other people and timing and the economy and all the rest of it. People who fail often times are desperately in need of a success. They're smarter, they're more clever about how they do things, their sometimes tremendous egos are suspended in check.

...

So we rarely will finance somebody at Sequoia who's had an outrageous success. My - my best example is my friend Steve Jobs. We financed Steve in 1977 at Apple. Steve was twenty, un-degreed, some people said unwashed, and he looked like Ho Chi Min. But he was a bright person then, and is a brighter man now. And here was a man that created Apple, and in the creation of Apple helped create the personal computer business. Phenomenal achievement done by somebody in his very early twenties. Outrageously success - successful, and after he - his stay at Apple he then evolved to an individual who was having lunch with the governor of California, then Jerry Brown, who had an apartment in New York City. When I met him he didn't know where New York City was.

https://silicongenesis.stanford.edu/transcripts/valentine.htm
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this duality is cast as “facticity” and “transcendence.” The “givens” of our situation such as our language, our environment, our previous choices and our very selves in their function as in-itself constitute our facticity. As conscious individuals, we transcend (surpass) this facticity in what constitutes our “situation.” In other words, we are always beings “in situation,” but the precise mixture of transcendence and facticity that forms any situation remains indeterminable, at least while we are engaged in it. Hence Sartre concludes that we are always “more” than our situation and that this is the ontological foundation of our freedom. We are “condemned” to be free, in his hyperbolic phrase.

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/sartre/
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Elon Musk Urges U.S. Governors to Regulate AI Before “It’s Too Late.”

But he may struggle to get his way without hard evidence of what, exactly, needs regulating.

Speaking at the National Governors Association meeting in Rhode Island on Saturday, Musk called AI “the biggest risk that we face as a civilization,” according to the Wall Street Journal. That’s a sentiment shared by a small but influential crowd of techno-thinkers.

“Until people see robots going down the street killing people, they don’t know how to react because it seems so ethereal. AI is a rare case where I think we need to be proactive in regulation instead of reactive. Because I think by the time we are reactive in AI regulation, it’s too late.”


Back in the 1970s, biologists managed to deal with a somewhat similar problem (Recombinant DNA) through voluntary refusal to create bio chimeras. I don't think computer scientist have the same level of moral commitment to the fate of the humanity.
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"Логику читайте, господа, и вам многое откроется."

https://ninazino.dreamwidth.org/2030853.html


Напоминает старый анекдот про "Рембрандта читала?!"
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the unsuitability of the human cortex for philosophical work. On this view, our most celebrated philosophers are like dogs walking on their hind legs—just barely attaining the threshold level of performance required for engag- ing in the activity at all.

--- Nick Bostrom. Superinteligence, 2014. p 59.
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Rationality works best, that is, we generally get the kind of results that we want, in a world where the choices are very limited. Now, the reason for that is very simple. When you structure the environment by rules, laws, and tools and techniques, the players are constrained in certain directions. It is the constraints on the actors that help the decision-maker. The more unconstrained the environment, through lack of an effective artifactual structure, the more difficult it is for people to make choices or to implement their choices in effective ways.

--- Douglas C. North. DEALING WITH A NON-ERGODIC WORLD: INSTITUTIONAL ECONOMICS, PROPERTY RIGHTS, AND THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT.
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...the beliefs that individuals, groups, and societies hold which determine choices are a consequence of learning through time - not just the span of an individual's life or of a generation of a society but the learning embodied in individuals, groups, and societies that is cumulative through time and passed on intergenerationally by the culture of a society.

--- Douglas C. North, Nobel Prize Lecture, 1993.
http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economic-sciences/laureates/1993/north-lecture.html
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... short Norwegian men aged 40-59 at risk between 1963 and 1979 were much more likely to die than tall men. Indeed, the risk of mortality for men with heights of 165 cm (65.0 inches) was on average 71 percent greater than that of men who measure 182.5 cm (71.9 inches).

-- Robert W. Fogel. Nobel Prize Lecture. 1993.




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Ray Dalio (CEO of Bridgewater) on Donald Trump's policies:

From the higher-level perspective, when faced with the choices between what's good for the whole and what's good for the part, and between harmony and conflict, he has a strong tendency to choose the part and conflict. By “the whole,” I mean the whole ecosystem, the whole world community, and whole of the US, and by “the part,” I mean the part of the US that he is presumably trying to help.

It seems to me people who are trying to figure out whether or not to support him are faced with three big questions: 1) what exactly is the part he’s trying to optimize for (e.g., American manufacturing workers) and at the expense of whom, 2) am I more aligned with that part he is trying to protect (e.g., American manufacturing workers) or more aligned with those who will lose out (e.g., immigrants, those who will lose benefits from his budget changes), and 3) will his path of conflict rather than cooperation be effective or harmful? Sometimes conflict produces better results and sometimes it produces worse results for the people who are pursuing it to get what they want.

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/couple-thoughts-ray-dalio
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...to any willing there belongs something willed, which has already made itself definite in terms of a "for-the-sake-of-which". If willing is to be possible ontologically, the following items are constitutive for it:
(I) the prior disclosedness of the "for-the-sake-of-which" in general (Being-ahead-of- itself);
(2) the disclosedness of something with which one can concern oneself (the world as the "wherein" of Being-already);
(3) Dasein's projection of itself understandingly upon a potentiality-for-Being towards a possibility of the entity 'willed'.

In the phenomenon of willing, the underlying totality of care shows through.
...
The average everydayness of concern becomes blind to its possibilities, and tranquillizes itself with that which is merely 'actual'. This tranquillizing does not rule out a high degree of diligence in one's concern, but arouses it. In this case no positive new possibilities are willed, but that which is at one's disposal becomes 'tactically' altered in such a way that there is a semblance of something happening.

...
this tranquillized 'willing' under the guidance of the "they", does not signify that one's Being towards one's potentiality-for- Being has been extinguished, but only that it has been modified. In such a case, one's Being towards possibilities shows itself for the most part as mere wishing.

--- Martin Heidegger. Being and Time.


The latter is what the fashion industry is all about.
upd. also note the important distinction b/w willing and wishing.
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ESTRAGON:
Then we can bring a good bit of rope.

VLADIMIR:
Yes.

Silence.

ESTRAGON:
Didi?

VLADIMIR:
Yes.

ESTRAGON:
I can't go on like this.

VLADIMIR:
That's what you think.

ESTRAGON:
If we parted? That might be better for us.

VLADIMIR:
We'll hang ourselves tomorrow. (Pause.) Unless Godot comes.

ESTRAGON:
And if he comes?

VLADIMIR:
We'll be saved.

--- Waiting for Godot, by Samuel Beckett.
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...in fact modernity is a surprisingly simple deal. The entire contract can be summarised in a single phrase: humans agree to give up meaning in exchange for power.


--- Yuval Noah Harari. “Homo Deus: A Brief History of Tomorrow.”
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“Because,” said Thor, “when something goes wrong, the first thing I always think is, it is Loki’s fault. It saves a lot of time.”

Neil Gaiman. “Norse Mythology.”
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The only genuine access to them (entities) lies in knowing [Erkennen], intellectio, in the sense of the kind of knowledge [Erkenntnis] we get in mathematics and physics. Mathematical knowledge is regarded by Descartes as the one manner of apprehending entities which can always give assurance that their Being has been securely grasped. If anything measures up in its own kind of Being to the Being that is accessible in mathematical knowledge, then it is in the authentic sense.
...
That which enduringly remains, really is. This is the sort of thing which mathematics knows.
...
his ontology of the world is not primarily determined by his leaning towards mathematics, a science which he chances to esteem very highly, but rather by his ontological orientation in principle towards Being as constant presence-at-hand, which mathematical knowledge is exceptionally well suited to grasp.

--- Martin Heidegger. Being and Time, p. 96.
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It is different in the world of spirit...
the bread, only he who was in anguish finds repose, only he who descends into the under world rescues the beloved, only he who draws the knife gets Isaac.

--- Fear and Trembling, by Soren Kierkegaard.
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But it was her eyes that stopped his breath; that made his heart leap up. Blue they were, even through the swirling vapors of pompous Chesterfields and arrogant Lucky Strikes he saw her eyes were a blue beyond blue, like the ocean. A blue he could swim into forever and never miss a fire engine red or a cornstalk yellow. Across the chasm of that room, that blue, those eyes, devoured him and looked past him and never saw him and never would, of that he was sure. From that moment, Eugene understood what the poets had been writing about these many years, all the lost, wandering, lonely souls who were now his brothers. He knew a love that would never be his. So quickly did he fall for her that no one in the room even heard the sound, the whoosh as he fell, the clatter of his broken heart. It was a sure silence, but his life was shattered."

Genius. Script by John Logan.


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The high prices limited the market to persons of means. However, princes and nobles at first scorned the books produced in quantities and continued to purchase only manuscript copies. The clergy and the lawyers were less reluctant to accept substitute for manuscripts.

But the rapidity with which books came off the presses soon caused a glut on the market, because the reading public was not yet used to the idea that it could afford to buy more books. After eight years of hard, steady work, Sweynheym and Pannartz were caught in the first depression of the book trade with no cash and with all their funds tied up in a large stock of unbound copies. They implored Pope Sixtus IV to aid them, listing their inventory of 12,475 books. They complained that this accumulation crowded their quarters, so that they could scarcely move and even had to beg for their daily bread.

Florence Edler de Roover, New Facets on the Financing and Marketing of Early Printed Books. Bulletin of the Business Historical Society, Vol. 27, No. 4 (Dec., 1953), pp. 222-230. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3110897

Also see http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13688804.2014.955840

In the 1960s, there was a similar event in Silicon Valley during the microwave boom and bust cycle when the military suddenly reduced its purchases of radar-related equipment.

In the 1920s, the first bread slicing machines had a similar problem.
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It cannot be overemphasized that System A had no analogous precursor, and thus that – unlike virtually all succeeding scientific theories – its invention was a radical departure from anything which preceded it. Consequently, we can say almost nothing with confidence about its motivation, which cannot have been directed at the shortcomings of a (non-existent) prevailing theory, nor seemingly at any urgent practical need, since we have still no evidence of how it was employed. Indeed, how little we know of the circumstances of its origin is reflected in the fact that we do not even know for certain its author’s name.
...
The crucial step – apart from conceiving the desirability and imagining the feasibility of constructing a comprehensive mathematical model of this complex set of variable phenomena – was the separation and successful modeling of the effects of lunar and solar anomaly on the intervals between syzygies. The crux of this development was the initial construction of a model depicting the variations due to lunar anomaly of the intervals between syzygies.
...
One of the fundamental tools of Babylonian astronomy was the concept of period relation which equated Π phenomena of one sort with Z of another.
...
In each case the period relation implied that variations associated with the second phenomenon recurred after Π instances of the first phenomenon, and thus that Π phenomena = Z cycles of variation.
---
* the Substitute King ritual, practiced extensively during the reigns of Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal, in which a substitute “king” (and queen) would be appointed to absorb the unfavorable effects of an adverse eclipse, which would be expunged from the kingdom by their subsequent deaths.


Source: John P. Britton. Studies in Babylonian Lunar Theory: Part I. Empirical Elements for Modeling Lunar and Solar Anomalies.

Arch. Hist. Exact Sci. 61 (2007) 83–145. Digital Object Identifier (DOI) 10.1007/s00407-006-0121-9

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