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I think this figure is going to be important for many fields outside of quantum physics because it models a system's capacity to accommodate additional energy/information.

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(via Vlad) An instructive interview that shows how people make mental mistakes by extrapolating technology solutions with "more-of-the-same" thinking:

We spend our time looking for threats against a company. We look for things that might be active inside the company that would cause us concern, and then of course we look to respond—detecting, containing, and deflecting those threats as much as possible while at the same time keeping in mind that our executives and board of directors always want to know what's going on with security in the company.

Generically, every breach has the big data problem. For example, in a malware incident that results in a breach, the malware comes in and spreads across the environment.

When that scope [of investigation] expands, the security team typically has to deal with a sudden increase in big data -- logs, alerts, etc. -- making budget planning critical. Right now I'm planning my budget for next year, and I hope I ask for enough disk space and computing power so that the infrastructure is prepared for future attacks. ... Burst capacity is really critical for the security team who needs to find answers quickly.

Basically, she assumes that data security and hardware capacity/budget are "entangled" linear orders.

also see https://timelets.dreamwidth.org/682944.html

upd: the alleged exploit https://qz.com/1073221/the-hackers-who-broke-into-equifax-exploited-a-nine-year-old-security-flaw/
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There seems to be a direct connection between Born's argument and CT.
This root of the matter is a very simple logical distinction which seems to be
obvious to anybody not biased by a solipsistic metaphysics; namely this : that often a measurable quantity is not a property of a thing, but a property of its relation to other things.

In every physical theory there is a rule which connects the projections of the same object
on different systems of reference, called a law of transformation, and all these transformations have the property of forming a group, i.e. the sequence of two consecutive transformations is a transformation of the same kind.

DOI 10.2307/2216882

Developing a new paradigm necessarily involves construction of a new frame of reference. For example, Newton was highly successful at creating new frames of reference for time and space. Born notes it in his Nobel speech.

Newtonian mechanics is deterministic in the following sense: If the initial state (positions and velocities of all particles) of a system is accurately given, then the state at any other time (earlier or later) can be calculated from the laws of mechanics. All the other branches of classical physics have been built up according to this model. Mechanical determinism gradually became a kind of article of faith: the world as a machine, an automaton. As far as I can see, this idea has no forerunners in ancient and medieval philosophy.* The idea is a product of the immense success of Newtonian mechanics, particularly in astronomy. In the 19th century it became a basic philosophical principle for the whole of exact science. I asked myself whether this was really justified. Can absolute predictions really be made for all time on the basis of the classical equations of motion?

* A new default worldview.
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The work, for which I have had the honour to be awarded the Nobel Prize for 1954, contains no discovery of a fresh natural phenomenon, but rather the basis for a new mode of thought in regard to natural phenomena.
Planck, himself, belonged to the sceptics until he died. Einstein, De Broglie, and Schrödinger have unceasingly stressed the unsatisfactory features of quantum mechanics and called for a return to the concepts of classical, Newtonian physics while proposing ways in which this could be done without contradicting experimental facts.

--- Max Born. Nobel Prize (1954) Lecture.

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To be sure, this word information in communication theory relates not so much to what you do say, as to what you could say.

That is, information is a measure of one's freedom of choice when one selects a message. If one is confronted with a very elementary situation where he has to choose one of two alternatIve messages, then it is arbitrarily said that the information, associated with this situation, is unity.

The concept of information applies not to the indi- vidual messages (as the concept of meaning would), but rather to the situation as a whole, the unit information indicating that in this situation one has an amount of freedom of choice, in selecting a message, which it is convenient-to regard as a standard or unit amount.

To be somewhat more definite, the amount of information is defined, in the simplest cases, to be measured by the logarithm of the number of available choices.

-- Claude E. Shannon and Warren Weaver (1949).

need to think about it in the context of learning by doing.
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Ancient Indian myths are simply amazing, e.g. how the gods and the titans were churning the Milky Ocean of immortal life for its butter "Amrita."
One of the titans, Rahu, managed to steal a sip, but was beheaded before the liquor passed his throat; his body decayed but the head remained immortal. And this head now goes pursuing the moon forever through the skies, trying again to seize it. When it succeeds, the cup passes easily through its mouth and out again at its throat: that is why we have eclipses of the moon.

- ibid
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They [gods] emerge always with a certain mystery; for they conduct the mind beyond objective experience into a symbolic realm where duality is left behind.
"So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them." The question may arise in the mind as to the nature of the image of God; but the answer is already given in the text, and is clear enough. "When the Holy One, Blessed be He, created the first man, He created him androgynous.'
The removal of the feminine into another form symbolizes the beginning of the fall from perfection into duality; and it was naturally followed by the discovery of the duality of good and evil, exile from the garden where God walks on earth, and thereupon the building of the wall of Paradise, constituted of the "coincidence of opposites," by which Man (now man and woman) is cut off from not only the vision but even the recollection of the image of God.
... symbolizing the mystery of creation: the devolvement of eternity into time, the breaking of the one into the two and then the many, as well as the generation of new life through the reconjunction of the two.

--- The Hero with a Thousand Faces.
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Age is probably a more important factor than gender. Moreover, lab vs life discrepancy appears to be a big issue in cognitive abilities research.

Abstract: Adult age differences in a variety of cognitive abilities are well documented, and many of those abilities have been found to be related to success in the workplace and in everyday life. However, increased age is seldom associated with lower levels of real-world functioning, and the reasons for this lab-life discrepancy are not well understood.

Source: doi: 10.1146/annurev-psych-120710-100328


TIL: panic

Aug. 13th, 2017 11:43 am
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It turns out that the word "panic" can be traced back to Pan.
The Arcadian god Pan is the best known Classical example of this dangerous presence dwelling just beyond the protected zone of the village boundary.

The emotion that he instilled in human beings who by accident adventured into his domain was "panic" fear, a sudden, groundless fright. Any trifling cause then—the break of a twig, the flutter of a leaf—would flood the mind with imagined danger, and in the frantic effort to escape from his own aroused unconscious the victim expired in a flight of dread.

--- quoted from The Hero with a Thousand Faces.

Note, how the ancients externalized imagination. Similarly, all Odysseus' creative ideas were whispered to him by the gods.
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Reminds me of adjunction in Category Theory.

quote from The Hero with a Thousand Faces, by Joseph Campbell.

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we say you should never trust your gut. You need to take your gut feeling as an important data point, but then you have to consciously and deliberately evaluate it, to see if it makes sense in this context. You need strategies that help rule things out.

- Daniel Kahneman and Gary Klein
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“One of the earliest examples of fully automated decision making that we know of, which arrived right as the era of corporate computing dawned, was the development of a numeric score that reflected people’s creditworthiness...

This obviously critical decision had traditionally been made by local loan officers at bank branches who evaluated applications on the basis of their own experience, sometimes in conjunction with rules or guidelines. But Bill Fair and Earl Isaac thought data could do a better job. They founded the Fair Isaac Corporation in 1956 and began calculating FICO scores of creditworthiness.”

-- Andrew McAfee. “Machine, Platform, Crowd.”.
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In the context of governance of human–environment interactions, a panacea refers to a blueprint for a single type of governance system (e.g., government ownership, privatization, community property) that is applied to all environmental problems.

Practitioners and scholars who fall into panacea traps falsely assume that all problems of resource governance can be represented by a small set of simple models, because they falsely perceive that the preferences and perceptions of most resource users are the same.

The study of the governance of SESs[social-ecological systems], and of sustainability science more generally (50), is an applied science like medicine and engineering, which aim to find solutions for diverse and complex problems. In diagnosing problems, the applied scientist examines attributes of a problem, layer by layer, and focuses on traits that are thought to be essential in a particular context. When an initial solution is adopted, considerable effort is made to dig deeply into the structure of the problem and to monitor various indicators of the system. On the basis of this information, applied scientists change their actions and learn from failures.

Ostrom, et. al. 2007

doi: 10.1073/pnas.0701886104

Also related http://www.phil.upenn.edu/~weisberg/documents/threekindsfinal.pdf (wrt Model-based science)
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re: problem isomorphs

The representation effect: Human performance varies enormously (10-100:1) with different representations [of the same problem].

Hanrahan, Pat. "Systems of thought." EuroVis 2009 keynote address (2009): 10-12.
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A possible reason why CT works for developing new ideas:
“the words or the language, as they are written or spoken, do not seem to play any role in my mechanism of thought. The psychical entities which seem to serve as elements in thought are certain signs and more or less clear images which can be 'voluntarily' reproduced and combined.”

- Albert Einstein, quoted from Herbert A. Simon. Models of my life. p 375.

upd. Another possible related concept is "problem isomorphs."

Simon defined problem isomorphs as problems whose solutions and moves can be placed in one-to-one relation with the solutions and moves of the given problem [17]. The key to isomorphism is that even when two representations contain the same information, they can still provide very different sets of operations for accessing and inferring about that information, which can make a given problem easier or harder to solve [13]

Dou, Wenwen, et al. "Comparing different levels of interaction constraints for deriving visual problem isomorphs." Visual Analytics Science and Technology (VAST), 2010 IEEE Symposium on. IEEE, 2010.
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...it is now clear that the elaborate organizations that human beings have constructed in the modern world to carry out the work of production and government can only be understood as machinery for coping with the limits of man’s abilities to comprehend and compute in the face of complexity and uncertainty.

Herbert A. Simon. Nobel Prize lecture, Dec 8, 1978.

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And the reason for Purdue [offering a masters program on semiconductors in 1960] is most people don’t know that the transistor effect was found at Crane Naval Air Development Center three weeks after Shockley. And it’s the tragedy of being second.

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AR: Well, Fairchild Camera and Instrument was a company that was located in Syosset, New York. It's in Long Island. And it had, other than, when Sherman died the attitude changed a bit. They had a very, what I call an Eastern mentality in that they didn't want anybody to have any options in stock and the eight entrepreneurs who started Fairchild Semiconductor decided individually and together that they would gradually peel off and, and form their own enterprises because they couldn't get any more equity in, and a lot of the people there felt that they should be giving equity to some of the people who had, hadn't helped start the company but were instrumental in its, in its success. And Fairchild Camera and Instrument were, was unwilling to do that. So gradually they peeled off and finally by 1968 there were only Noyce and Moore left.

timelets: (Default)
Most people who succeed are not very objective or realistic about why. They think it's all their personal brilliance. And in significant part it is, but they forget the luck factor and the contribution of other people and timing and the economy and all the rest of it. People who fail often times are desperately in need of a success. They're smarter, they're more clever about how they do things, their sometimes tremendous egos are suspended in check.


So we rarely will finance somebody at Sequoia who's had an outrageous success. My - my best example is my friend Steve Jobs. We financed Steve in 1977 at Apple. Steve was twenty, un-degreed, some people said unwashed, and he looked like Ho Chi Min. But he was a bright person then, and is a brighter man now. And here was a man that created Apple, and in the creation of Apple helped create the personal computer business. Phenomenal achievement done by somebody in his very early twenties. Outrageously success - successful, and after he - his stay at Apple he then evolved to an individual who was having lunch with the governor of California, then Jerry Brown, who had an apartment in New York City. When I met him he didn't know where New York City was.



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