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Another good graphic from "A history of commerce, 1907" - before and after the age of explorers (mid-15th century).



Geographic discoveries of the 15th century provided another incentive for the Northern Europeans to break away from Catholicism:
The non-Christian world was divided between these two powers by a papal decree which gave to Portugal Africa and Asia except the Philippines and to Spain the Americas except Brazil. So long as other European states obeyed papal authority and feared the might of Spain and Portugal, they were bound to respect this division and the first period of discoveries was followed by a series of voyages carried on especially by English and Dutch seeking a passage northeast or northwest through Arctic seas that would enable them to evade the monopoly granted by the Pope.

Major inventions of the 17th and 18th centuries: log and chronometer:
The simple means of the later Middle Ages could give some idea of a vessel's latitude but very little of its longitude. The introduction of the log in the seventeenth century enabled a sailor to measure distance traversed more accurately and the invention of the chronometer in the eighteenth century gave at last a reliable and practical means of determining longitude at sea.
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David Gelernter on a connection between creativity and emotion:
it's a general observation--that creativity often hinges on inventing new analogies. ... Now, what makes me come up with a new analogy? What allows me to do that? Generally, it's a lower-spectrum kind of thinking, a down-spectrum kind of thinking, in which I'm allowing my emotions to emerge. And, I'm allowing emotional similarity between two memories that are in other respects completely different.
...
Emotion is a tremendously powerful summarizer, abstractor. We can look at a complex scene involving loads of people rushing back and forth because it's Grand Central Station, and noisy announcements on [?] to understand, loudspeakers, and you're being hot and tired, and lots of advertisements, and colorful clothing, and a million other things; and smells, and sounds, and--we can take all that or any kind of complex scene or situation, the scene out your window, the scene on the TV (television) when you turn on the news, or a million other things. And take all those complexities and boil them down to a single emotion: it makes me feel some way.

To me, coproducts feel like the Grand Central Station in Gelernter's description - a mess, with some unknown undercurrents that I may be able to figure out. Continuing with this analogy, products feel like night. That is, a moment in time when (most) everybody and everything find their places: people in their houses, animals in their holes, trains in their depots, etc. The mess turns into a world of neat pairs and triplets. It would be cool to eavesdrop on their dreams and see where they actually want to be. That would show us a potential innovation path.

Another interesting way to use his thought would be to apply the emotional approach in workshops proactively and think about various topics with different emotions.



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Going over Treatise of Intuitionist Logic, by JG Granstorm for the second time (see fig and text below):
Screen Shot 2016-03-17 at 11.00.37 AM
Screen Shot 2016-03-17 at 11.01.57 AM

This points to an possible interesting connection between imagination that creates concepts and the process of "learning by doing" that converts the concepts into things. The more complex the thing that embodies the concept, the more communications we need to have with other people who participate in doing the thing. As a result, the expression side of the triangle begins to grow. (upd. In a dynamic model we need expressions to communicate between the same person at diffent time periods.)

Based on this model, to represent a system in terms of the Category Theory, we would have to have at least three types of Objects that play Sources and Targets, and  at least three (or likely six?) types of Arrows that go between them. For example, an individual's artistic sci-fi imagination can be formalized as: ImaginationA: Concept -> Expression,
while Edison-style craftsman imagination as: ImaginationE: Concept -> Thing

Furthermore, if we want to model an evolution of the system, we would have to introduce all these objects at at least two times periods, e.g. today and tomorrow. This will cause us add three more arrows, e.g.
EvolveConcept: ConceptAtTime1 -> ConcepAtTime2

* I'm using "thing" instead of "object" to avoid confusion with objects in the Category Theory.

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