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To be sure, this word information in communication theory relates not so much to what you do say, as to what you could say.

That is, information is a measure of one's freedom of choice when one selects a message. If one is confronted with a very elementary situation where he has to choose one of two alternatIve messages, then it is arbitrarily said that the information, associated with this situation, is unity.

The concept of information applies not to the indi- vidual messages (as the concept of meaning would), but rather to the situation as a whole, the unit information indicating that in this situation one has an amount of freedom of choice, in selecting a message, which it is convenient-to regard as a standard or unit amount.

To be somewhat more definite, the amount of information is defined, in the simplest cases, to be measured by the logarithm of the number of available choices.

-- Claude E. Shannon and Warren Weaver (1949).


need to think about it in the context of learning by doing.
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Ancient Indian myths are simply amazing, e.g. how the gods and the titans were churning the Milky Ocean of immortal life for its butter "Amrita."
One of the titans, Rahu, managed to steal a sip, but was beheaded before the liquor passed his throat; his body decayed but the head remained immortal. And this head now goes pursuing the moon forever through the skies, trying again to seize it. When it succeeds, the cup passes easily through its mouth and out again at its throat: that is why we have eclipses of the moon.

- ibid
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They [gods] emerge always with a certain mystery; for they conduct the mind beyond objective experience into a symbolic realm where duality is left behind.
...
"So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them." The question may arise in the mind as to the nature of the image of God; but the answer is already given in the text, and is clear enough. "When the Holy One, Blessed be He, created the first man, He created him androgynous.'
The removal of the feminine into another form symbolizes the beginning of the fall from perfection into duality; and it was naturally followed by the discovery of the duality of good and evil, exile from the garden where God walks on earth, and thereupon the building of the wall of Paradise, constituted of the "coincidence of opposites," by which Man (now man and woman) is cut off from not only the vision but even the recollection of the image of God.
...
... symbolizing the mystery of creation: the devolvement of eternity into time, the breaking of the one into the two and then the many, as well as the generation of new life through the reconjunction of the two.

--- The Hero with a Thousand Faces.
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A new survey commissioned by Microsoft found that young girls in Europe become interested in so-called STEM subjects around the age of 11 and then quickly lose interest when they're 15.
The survey also found that girls' interest in humanities subjects drops around the same age but then rebound sharply. Interest in STEM subjects does not recover.

http://money.cnn.com/2017/02/28/technology/girls-math-science-engineering/index.html
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I've just realized that I think about China like Jon Snow thinks about Whitewalkers: the threat is imminent and we need as many allies as we can muster. In the meantime, the red clown in the White House makes us look unhinged and incapable of meaningful leadership. Pence isn't much of a presidential material either. What a waste.
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Age is probably a more important factor than gender. Moreover, lab vs life discrepancy appears to be a big issue in cognitive abilities research.




Abstract: Adult age differences in a variety of cognitive abilities are well documented, and many of those abilities have been found to be related to success in the workplace and in everyday life. However, increased age is seldom associated with lower levels of real-world functioning, and the reasons for this lab-life discrepancy are not well understood.


Source: doi: 10.1146/annurev-psych-120710-100328

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3632788/
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Еще каких-то сто лет назад, в обществе шли дебаты, нужно ли учить девочек читать и писать. А сейчас уже идут дебаты, нужно ли девочек учить математике и программированию. Наверное, это к лучшему.

И еще, в традиционном исламском обществе до сих пор еще не решили, учить ли девочек читать и писать. Так что мы лучше, чем исламисты.
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The hero ventures into a different world, obtains a valuable object and bestows its benefits on the entire humanity. People love him for that and make him the king.

The merchant ventures into a different world, obtains a valuable object and sells it to the few who can afford to buy. People hate him for that and tax his unfair profits.

upd. the nature of the goods obtained is different wrt their rival and excludable properties.

TIL: panic

Aug. 13th, 2017 11:43 am
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It turns out that the word "panic" can be traced back to Pan.
The Arcadian god Pan is the best known Classical example of this dangerous presence dwelling just beyond the protected zone of the village boundary.

The emotion that he instilled in human beings who by accident adventured into his domain was "panic" fear, a sudden, groundless fright. Any trifling cause then—the break of a twig, the flutter of a leaf—would flood the mind with imagined danger, and in the frantic effort to escape from his own aroused unconscious the victim expired in a flight of dread.

--- quoted from The Hero with a Thousand Faces.


Note, how the ancients externalized imagination. Similarly, all Odysseus' creative ideas were whispered to him by the gods.
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Reminds me of adjunction in Category Theory.



quote from The Hero with a Thousand Faces, by Joseph Campbell.


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we say you should never trust your gut. You need to take your gut feeling as an important data point, but then you have to consciously and deliberately evaluate it, to see if it makes sense in this context. You need strategies that help rule things out.

- Daniel Kahneman and Gary Klein
http://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/strategy-and-corporate-finance/our-insights/strategic-decisions-when-can-you-trust-your-gut
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A headline in US Today plays down the sense of disbelief most asians feel when they hear Covfefe's rhetoric on North Korea.
Asians wonder who is more dangerous: President Trump or North Korean leader Kim Jong Un?

The metropolitan area of Seoul is home to 25 million people and remains vulnerable not just to a nuclear attack from North Korea but to a strike from the massive buildup of conventional artillery at the border just 35 miles away.
...
In Ho Chi Minh City, Dang Nguyen, 26, an associate professor, said most people aren’t discussing the threat of war breaking out in the region too seriously, but many are confounded by the impulsiveness of both leaders.


As expected, last night Chinese president Xi told Covfefe go fuck himself. Covfefe got upset and decided to impose tariffs on Chinese products. Sure, let's have a trade war, while we are waiting for a nuclear one.

BTW, neither Europeans nor Asians feel confident that the US will behave in a sane manner if a real conflict arises. After Covfefe threatened Venezuela with a military intervention, South Americans had become concerned too. They don't particularly like Maduro, but they don't like Covfefe and his pompous threats even more.
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“One of the earliest examples of fully automated decision making that we know of, which arrived right as the era of corporate computing dawned, was the development of a numeric score that reflected people’s creditworthiness...

This obviously critical decision had traditionally been made by local loan officers at bank branches who evaluated applications on the basis of their own experience, sometimes in conjunction with rules or guidelines. But Bill Fair and Earl Isaac thought data could do a better job. They founded the Fair Isaac Corporation in 1956 and began calculating FICO scores of creditworthiness.”

-- Andrew McAfee. “Machine, Platform, Crowd.”.
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https://juan-gandhi.dreamwidth.org/4004100.html?thread=111122180#cmt111122180

Благодаря русскоязычному DW/ЖЖ, я научился разбираться в сортах трамповаты. Что мне теперь делать с этим знанием?
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Andy Borowitz
Poll: Americans Favor Dropping Trump on North Korea
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People actually buy this Goolag BS from a guy who had to be fired and escorted out of the door to leave the company. What a jerk.

TIL

Aug. 10th, 2017 08:33 pm
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Interactive webcamming is the fastest-growing sector of the global pornography business. In Romania, thousands of women work as "cam-girls" from studios and from home.

http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-40829230


Typically, porn is a precursor of a major tech transition. Is webcamming just a replacement for phone sex or something bigger is going on?
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http://www.economicsonline.co.uk/Competitive_markets/Production_possibility_frontiers.html



D and D-op are linear orders.


Production possibility frontiers

An opportunity cost will usually arise whenever an economic agent chooses between alternative ways of allocating scarce resources. The opportunity cost of such a decision is the value of the next best alternative use of scarce resources. Opportunity cost can be illustrated by using production possibility frontiers (PPFs) which provide a simple, yet powerful tool to illustrate the effects of making an economic choice.

A PPF shows all the possible combinations of two goods, or two options available at one point in time.

Production possibilities

Mythica, which is a hypothetical economy, produces only two goods - textbooks and computers. When it uses all of its resources, it can produce five million computers and fifty five million textbooks. In fact, it can produce all the following combinations of computers and books.

COMPUTERS (m)TEXTBOOKS (m)
070
169
268
365
460
555
648
739
824
90

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South Korea produces more than 50% of world's memory chips (DRAM and NAND). A nuclear strike on North Korea will cripple the industry and paralyze US high tech companies.

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